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        What is CNC Machining?

        CNC machining is a precision machining method that uses computer digital control machine tools to achieve the manufacturing and processing of parts and products. This method mainly adjusts the processing of a piece of material by automatically removing the excess part of the material. Usually the materials used are mainly metals, and when the removal work is completed, the product or part is finished.

        For better CNC machining, the machine movement is controlled by a computer application. Common CNC machining processes include milling and turning, among others. Milling work is mainly the use of rotating tools on the surface of the workpiece, moving along 3, 4 or 5 axes, basically cutting or trimming the workpiece. Complex geometries and precision parts can be quickly machined from metal. Turning, on the other hand, utilizes a lathe to manufacture a part that contains cylindrical features. The workpiece rotates on the shaft and comes into contact with the precision turning tool, forming rounded edges, radial and axial holes, slots, and grooves.

        Compared with the traditional manual machine processing method, the speed of CNC CNC machining is much faster, as long as the computer code is correct and conforms to the design, the dimensional accuracy of the processed product is very high, and the error is very small. This method of CNC manufacturing can be used to manufacture end-use products and components, but is typically only cost-effective in short-term production runs with low volumes, making it particularly suitable for applications that require rapid prototyping manufacturing.

        In multi-axis CNC machining, CNC milling involves the use of rotating tools to remove material. In this case, either the workpiece remains stationary, the tool moves onto the workpiece, or the workpiece enters the machine at a predetermined angle. The more axes of motion a machine has, the more complex and faster its forming process becomes.

        Three-axis CNC machining is a widely used machining process. In 3-axis machining, the workpiece remains fixed and the rotating tool cuts along the X, Y, and Z axes. This is a relatively simple form of CNC machining that allows the manufacture of products with simple structures. However, it should be noted that it is not suitable for processing complex geometries or products with complex components. Since it can only be cut on three axes, the machining speed can also be a bit slower than that of a four- or five-axis CNC.

        Four-axis CNC machiningIn four-axis CNC milling, the fourth axis is added to the motion of the cutting tool, allowing rotation around the x-axis. There are now four axes – the x-axis, the y-axis, the z-axis, and the a-axis (which rotates around the x-axis). Most four-axis CNC machines also allow the workpiece to rotate, which is known as the B-axis, so that the machine can act as both a milling machine and a lathe. If you need to drill holes in the side of a part or in the curved surface of a cylinder, 4-axis CNC machining is a great option. It greatly speeds up the machining process and has high machining accuracy.

        Five-axis CNC milling in five-axis CNC machining has one additional axis of rotation over four-axis CNC. The fifth axis is rotation around the y-axis, also known as the b-axis. The workpiece can also be rotated on some machines, sometimes referred to as the B-axis or C-axis. Due to the high versatility of 5-axis CNC machining, it is especially suitable for manufacturing complex precision parts. Examples include medical components for artificial prostheses or bones, aerospace components, titanium components, oil and gas mechanical components, and military.

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